The Bioscan, 4(2): 237-240, 2009
An International Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences
web site: www.thebioscan.in 
STUDIES ON HYPOPHARYNGEAL GLAND IN RELATION TO SYNTHESIS 
AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ROYAL JELLY IN THE HONEY 
BEE, APIS FLOREA FARB. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE)
JYOTI TIMANDE* AND D.B. TEMBHARE1
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Pipri, Wardha - 442 001, India
1Department of Zoology, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440 033, India
E-mail: jyoti.timande@gmail.com

KEY WORDS
Honeybee
Apis florea
Hypopharyngeal gland
Royal jelly
Received on: 27.01.2009 Accepted on: 05.04.2009 *Corresponding Author

ABSTRACT

The hypopharyngeal gland complex is a paired beaded necklace-like structure lying in the ventrolateral cephalic region of the worker bees. The hypopharyngeal gland consists of large number of acinae, each consisting secretory cells at the center and parietal cells peripherally. Both the glands discharge secretion in the axial ducts which open through orifices lying laterally on the hypopharyngeal plate. The hypopharyngeal gland complex is fully developed in the nurse bees while greatly reduced in the foraging and old bees. The histological and histochemical studies demonstrated vigorous secretory activity, synthesizing DNA and RNA in the nuclei and proteins and carbohydrates in the cytoplasm of the acinar secretory cells. The hypopharyngeal secretion is composed of large amount of proteins and small amount of carbohydrates, besides a little concentration of lipid in the nurse bees while small amount of proteins and large amount of carbohydrates in the foraging and old bees showing reciprocal relationship between the protein and carbobydrate. SDS-PAGE analysis of hypo pharyngeal secretory material revealed in all 15 protein bands among which 8 represent prominent royal jelly proteins.